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Frequently Asked Questions


Most Frequently Asked Questions

What is SEO optimization? Frequently Asked Questions

SEO optimization, or Search Engine Optimization optimization (a bit redundant), refers to the practice of enhancing a website’s visibility and ranking on search engine results pages (SERPs). It involves strategic techniques and best practices aimed at improving a website’s relevance and credibility in the eyes of search engines, ultimately driving organic (non-paid) traffic to the site. Key elements of SEO optimization include keyword research, on-page optimization, content creation, link building, and technical SEO enhancements. The goal is to align a website’s content and structure with search engine algorithms, making it more likely to appear prominently in relevant search queries.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

What is content marketing?

Content marketing is a strategic marketing approach focused on creating and distributing valuable, relevant, and consistent content to attract and engage a target audience. The primary goal is to build trust and brand loyalty, ultimately driving profitable customer action. Content marketing involves the creation of various content types, such as blog posts, articles, videos, infographics, and more, tailored to address the needs and interests of a specific audience. The emphasis is on providing valuable information rather than directly promoting a product or service. By delivering content that educates, entertains, or solves problems, businesses aim to establish themselves as authorities in their industry and cultivate lasting relationships with their audience.

SEO link building is important for several reasons:

Search Engine Ranking: Search engines often use the number and quality of backlinks to a website as a ranking factor. Websites with a higher number of high-quality backlinks tend to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs).

Authority and Trust: Backlinks from reputable and authoritative websites contribute to a website’s perceived authority and trustworthiness. Search engines view websites with quality backlinks as more reliable sources of information.

Increased Visibility: Quality backlinks help improve a website’s visibility by making it more discoverable by search engines. This increased visibility can lead to higher organic traffic.

Referral Traffic: Backlinks act as pathways from one website to another. When a reputable website links to your content, it can drive referral traffic to your site, exposing your content to a broader audience.

Credibility and Brand Building: Having links from authoritative sources lends credibility to your website and brand. Users are more likely to trust and engage with content from websites that are referenced by other trusted sources.

Diverse Link Profiles: A diverse and natural link profile (links from various sources and types of websites) is viewed positively by search engines. It indicates that your content is valued by a wide audience.

Anchor for Keywords: Backlinks often include anchor text, which is a clickable text that is hyperlinked. Using relevant keywords in anchor text can contribute to the optimization of your website for those keywords.

Competitive Advantage: In competitive industries, link building can provide a competitive advantage. If your competitors have strong backlink profiles, building quality links becomes essential to keep up or surpass them in search rankings.

Adaptation to Algorithm Changes: Search engines frequently update their algorithms. While link building is just one aspect of SEO, it remains a fundamental factor that has consistently been considered in search engine ranking algorithms.

Long-Term Strategy: Quality link building is a long-term strategy that contributes to the overall health and success of a website in the digital landscape. Building a strong backlink profile takes time and ongoing effort.

It’s crucial to note that the emphasis should be on building high-quality, relevant, and natural links. Unethical or manipulative practices, such as buying links or participating in link schemes, can result in penalties from search engines. A sustainable and ethical link-building strategy is key to reaping the benefits over the long term.

How long does it take for a SEO site audit?

The time it takes to conduct an SEO site audit can vary based on several factors, including the size and complexity of the website, the depth of the audit, and the tools or methods used. Here are some general guidelines:

Small to Medium-Sized Websites:

For smaller websites with fewer pages and a relatively simple structure, a comprehensive SEO audit might take a few days to a week.
Large and Complex Websites:

Larger websites with a complex structure, numerous pages, and extensive content may require several weeks for a thorough audit.
Manual vs. Automated Audits:

Automated tools can quickly generate reports on certain aspects of SEO, providing a preliminary overview. However, a manual audit, which involves in-depth analysis by an SEO professional, takes more time but offers a more nuanced and accurate assessment.
Audit Depth:

The depth of the audit matters. A basic audit focusing on critical issues might be completed faster than a comprehensive audit that includes a detailed analysis of on-page SEO, off-page SEO, technical SEO, content quality, and more.
Client Collaboration:

The involvement and responsiveness of the website owner or stakeholders can impact the audit timeline. Access to necessary data and information, as well as the ability to address issues identified during the audit, can affect the overall duration.
Tools and Resources:

The choice of tools and resources used for the audit can influence the time required. Some tools automate certain aspects of the audit, while manual analysis may be necessary for a thorough examination.
It’s essential to strike a balance between a comprehensive audit and the timely implementation of necessary changes. After the audit, the next steps typically involve creating an action plan to address identified issues and improve the website’s SEO performance. Continuous monitoring and adjustments may be required over time to adapt to changing search engine algorithms and industry trends.

How much does PPC cost?

The cost of PPC (Pay-Per-Click) advertising can vary widely depending on several factors, including the industry, competition, target audience, geographic location, and the platform used (e.g., Google Ads, Bing Ads, Facebook Ads). Here are some key factors that influence PPC costs:

Industry Competition:

Highly competitive industries often have higher CPCs (Cost Per Click) because advertisers are bidding against each other for ad placements.
Keywords and Ad Relevance:

The choice of keywords and the relevance of your ad to those keywords affect the Quality Score, which, in turn, influences the cost. Higher Quality Scores can result in lower CPCs.
Geographic Targeting:

The location you are targeting can impact costs. Advertisers may pay more for clicks in regions with higher demand or a more competitive market.
Ad Position:

Advertisers bidding for higher positions on the search engine results page (SERP) typically pay more than those targeting lower positions.
Ad Scheduling:

Running ads during peak hours or specific times of the day may increase costs due to higher demand.
Device Targeting:

Bidding for ads on mobile devices may have different costs compared to desktop devices.
Ad Copy and Quality:

Well-crafted ad copy that attracts clicks and engages users positively influences costs. Higher-quality ads may lead to better ad placements and lower CPCs.
Campaign Objectives:

The goal of your PPC campaign (e.g., brand awareness, lead generation, e-commerce sales) can impact costs.
Platform Selection:

Different advertising platforms have varying cost structures. For example, Google Ads costs may differ from those on social media platforms like Facebook or LinkedIn.
Bidding Strategy:

The bidding strategy you choose (manual bidding vs. automated bidding) can affect costs and campaign performance.
It’s important to note that PPC operates on an auction model, where advertisers bid for ad placements based on their chosen keywords and targeting options. Advertisers set a maximum bid they are willing to pay for a click, and the actual CPC can be influenced by factors like competition and ad relevance.

While average CPCs can vary, it’s crucial for advertisers to monitor and optimize their campaigns regularly to ensure cost-effectiveness and achieve their specific marketing objectives. Additionally, setting a realistic budget and regularly analyzing performance metrics is key to managing PPC costs effectively.

Different types of cybersecurity?

Lorem ipsum dolor sDifferent types of cyber security are –
 Application security
 Cloud security
 Data security
 Mobile security
 Network security
 Database and infrastructure security
 Disaster recovery/business continuity planning
 Endpoint security
 End-user education
 Identity managementit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit. Optio, neque qui velit. Magni dolorum quidem ipsam eligendi, totam, facilis laudantium cum accusamus ullam voluptatibus commodi numquam, error, est. Ea, consequatur.

Difference between a threat, vulnerability, and risk?

Threat – Threats are cybersecurity events that have the potential to pose danger to
information or systems.
 Vulnerability – This refers to weaknesses in any system. Any system can be exploited
through a vulnerability
 Risk – Often confused with a treat, the risk is mainly a combination of threats and
losses, usually monetary ones

What is data leakage?

It refers to an unauthorized data transmission, either electronically or physically from an
organization to any external destination or recipient. The most common forms of data leakage
are through web, email, and mobile data storage devices.

Which factors contribute to data leakage?

The most commonly experienced factors are –
 Outdated data security
 Human Error
 Technology error
 Malware
 Misuse
 Physical theft of data
 System misconfiguration
 Inadequate security control for shared drives
 Corrupt hard-drive
 Unprotected data back up

How to prevent data leakage?

Since it’s a serious issue, it needs a proper strategy to tackle. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is
a practice adopted by the organizations to safeguard their data. Under this practice, users are
not allowed to send confidential or sensitive information outside of the enterprise network.
This requires businesses to distinguish the rules that classify confidential and sensitive
information such that it doesn’t get disclosed maliciously or even accidentally by any user.

What is Security Misconfiguration?

Categorized as system vulnerability, security misconfiguration is a situation when a
device/application/network is misconfigured and is prone to exploited by an attacker. A few
simple examples of this include leaving systems unattended in public places, sharing passwords
of devices and accounts, etc.

What is CIA Triangle?

CIA triangle is a model for guiding information security policies in any organization. It
stands for –
 Confidentiality – Maintaining the secrecy of the information
 Integrity – Keeping the information unchanged
 Availability – Ensuring an all-time availability of the information to the authorized

What are the ways that a malicious user would crack any password?

The most common password cracking techniques are –
 Dictionary attacks
 Brute forcing attacks
 Hybrid attacks
 Syllable attacks
 Rule based attacks
 Rainbow table attacks
 Phishing
 Social engineering
 Shoulder surfing
 Spidering
 Guessing

Name some of the common password cracking tools

. It is a part of ethical hacking, and some of the commonly used password cracking tools are

 Aircrack-NG
 Brutus
 Cain and Abel
 DaveGrohl
 ElcomSoft
 Hashcat
 Hydra
 John the Ripper
 RainbowCrack
 Wfuzz

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is a combination of two words, which are “crypt” meaning “hidden” and
“graphy” meaning “writing.” This is a practice of securing information and communication using
codes, and can only be accessible to those who are authorized to read and process it.

What is an XSS attack?

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is another type of vulnerability that can be technically described
as a client-side code injection attack. In this particular attack, an attacker injects malicious data
into vulnerable websites. An attack happens when a user visits the web page, as malicious code
is then executed. This attack is very harmful to web application users.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

What are the different types of XSS attacks?

There are three types of XSS attacks –
(i) Non-Persistent XSS attack – Here the data injected by the attacker is reflected in the
response and has a link with the XSS vector
(ii) Persistent XSS attack – The most harmful type of attack, where the script executes
automatically the moment a user opens the page
(iii) Document Object Model (DOM)-based XSS attack – An advanced type of XSS attack which
happens when a web application writes data to the DOM without any sanitization

Can you explain the ways to prevent an XSS attack?

Yes, we can prevent XSS attacks through three ways –
(i) Escaping – It is the process of stripping out unwanted data to secure the output.
(ii) Validating Input – This step ensures that the application is interpreting correct data while
preventing any malicious data from entering.
(iii) Sanitizing – This process involves cleaning or filtering your input data. It also changes
unacceptable user input to an acceptable format.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

Explain the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption.

Symmetric encryption – A conventional Encryption method, executed by one secret
‘Symmetric Key’ possessed by both parties. This key is used to encode and decode the
information. Symmetric encryption is carried out using algorithms like AES, DES, 3DES, RC4,
QUAD, Blowfish, etc.
Asymmetric encryption – It is a complex mode of Encryption, executed using two cryptographic
keys, namely a Public Key and a Private Key to implement data security. Asymmetric encryption
is carried out using algorithms like Diffie-Hellman and RSA.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

How would you handle antivirus alerts?

To answer this specific cybersecurity interview question, you would need to use your
expertise and experience. A possible reply could be –
On receiving an antivirus alert, one must refer to antivirus policy and then analyze it. If the alert
is sourced from a legitimate file, it should be directly whitelisted, but if it comes from a
malicious source, it should be deleted. It is mandatory to keep updating the firewall to receive
regular antivirus alerts.

What is SSL Encryption?

It is the acronym for Secure Sockets Layer. It is an industry-standard security technology
that creates encrypted connections between a web server and a browser. SSL is used to ensure
data privacy.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

What is a Firewall?

A firewall is a network security system. It manages the network traffic using a defined set
of security rules, and prevents remote access and content filtering. Firewalls are used to protect
the systems or networks from viruses, worms, malware, etc.

What are cyber attacks?

Cyber attacks are potential security issues that are created and exploited by malicious
users to access or destroy sensitive information, to extort money from users, or to hamper the
functioning of the normal business processes.

What are ITSCM and BCP?

ITSCM – IT Service Continuity Management is a practice that allows information security
professionals to develop IT infrastructure recovery plans
BCP – Business Continuity Planning is the process by which a company creates a prevention and
recovery system from potential threats.

Why is information security policy necessary for the organizations?

Information security policy is necessary for the organizations because it clearly outlines
the responsibilities of employees about the safety and security of information, intellectual
property, and data from potential risks.

The most popular work-around recovery options are –
 Fast recovery
 Gradual recovery
 Immediate recovery
 Intermediate recovery
 Manual workaround
 Reciprocal arrangements

What is ISO/IEC 27002?

ISO/IEC 27002:2013 is an information security standard. It is devised by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) and by the International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC). This code of practice provides guidelines for organizational information security standards
and information security management practices.

What are the various response codes that can be received from a web application?

Response codes received from a web application include –
 1xx – Informational responses
 2xx – Success
 3xx – Redirection
 4xx – Client-side error
 5xx – Server-side error

What is the difference between IDS and IPS?

IDS or Intrusion Detection System detects only intrusions and the administrator has to take
care of preventing the intrusion. Whereas, in IPS, i.e., Intrusion Prevention System, the system
detects the intrusion and also takes actions to prevent the intrusion.

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

Give some examples of web-based service desk tools.

Some example of web-based service desk tools include –
 CA service desk
 Oracle Service Cloud
 ServiceNow
 SolarWinds Web Help Desk
 Spiceworks Help Desk/Cloud Help Desk
 Tivoli

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

What are the types of errors?

There are two categories of errors –
 Single-bit error – One-bit error per data unit
 Burst error – Two or more bits errors per data unit 

Please Frequently Asked Questions.

Frequently Asked Questions

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